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Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics States About Energy Conversion
Thermodynamics is the branch of science that embodies the principles of energy transformation in macroscopic systems. The general restrictions which experience has shown to apply to all such transformations are known as the laws of thermodynamics. These laws are primitive; they cannot be derived from anything more basic.

The first law of thermodynamics states that energy is conserved; that, although it can be altered in form and transferred from one place to another, the total quantity remains constant. Thus, the first law of thermodynamics depends on the concept of energy; but, conversely, energy is an essential thermodynamic function because it allows the first law to be formulated. This coupling is characteristic of the primitive concepts of thermodynamics.

The words system and surroundings are similarly coupled. A system is taken to be any object, any quantity of matter, any region, and so on, selected for study and set apart (mental…

Relativistic Transformation

Additional Support for the Existence of Dual States
Lorentz Transformation
The Lorentz transformation equations were developed to retain an absolute frame of reference (the aether) while incorporating the null results of the Michelson-Morley experiment. The Einstein interpretation dispensed with the aether. However, the two theories are equivalent since according to the Lorentz interpretation, there is no method one can use to identify an absolute frame of reference if it indeed exists.

Both theories employed the dilation of time and the contraction of space. This was principally a mathematical exercise that disregarded the physical and logical consequences involved in maintaining a constant velocity for light.

The relativistic modifications of mass, time and space (dilation, contraction, et al.) are represented by the beta function,

ß = (1- v2/c2 )1/2 (1)

which is used in the Einstein-Lorentz transformation equations as follows:

x’ = (x – vt) / ß (2)
t’ = (t - vx/c2 ) / ß (3)

and,

x = (x’ …

Invisible Jacket Created By Scientist

This innovation is found by Andrea and being published by “New Journal of Physics” 26 March Edition. Invisible jacket like in Harry Potter, now have been created by Muggle scientist, even this jacket can only work on micro wave invisible light.

Nevertheless, it remains a great creation. The physicists are making a new robe, said it was a step forward to realize the invisibility cloak that can hide one in the afternoon light. This creation is made from metascreen material, copper tape material attached to a flexible polycarbonate films. Pieces of copper was only 66 micrometers thick (66 millionth of a meter), while the polycarbonate films only 100 micrometers thick, and the two combined in a diagonal pattern of the net.

Invisible jacket can work because deflect the rays around an object so that the light does not spread or bounce, a technique that relies metamaterials (artificial material, not the material naturally) large. The new robes using a technique called sheath coat to preve…

Movement Problem

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Solve these Physical Problems:

1. A good have 2 kg weight is moving with constant speed, suddenly collide sand bag and get force f with time function as on the picture below.

 Speed changes on the first 4 second is ….

(a) 11.6 m/s
(b) 10.6 m/s
(c) 9.6 m/s
(d) 8.6 m/s
(e) 7.6 m/s

2. Two good each have simple dynamic moving with each formula as follows:

 y1 = 8 sin 100t, y2 = 6 sin (100t – π/2), where x and y in cm while t in second, the magnitude of amplitude superposition of both vibration is ……

(a) 14 cm
(b) 10 cm
(c) 8 cm
(d) 6 cm
(e) 2 cm

Continuity Equotion

Flow rate is a quantity that indicates the volume of fluid flowing through a cross section per unit time. Mathematically derived as the following equation:

Q = v/t = A . v

where:
v = volume of fluids that flow through (m2)
t = time (second)
A = cross section area (m2)
v = the flow speed

For incompressible fluid, the result of multiplication of flow speed with the cross section area remains constant.

A1 . v1 = A2 . v2 this equotion also called as continuity equotion.

Wheel Rotation

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I have two wheels with rotate and connected each others like on the picture below. Wheel number 1 have radius R1 and wheel number two have radius R2. R1 is bigger than R2 have comparison size R1 = 2 R2. If this wheel rotate together what is the comparison speed of these wheels?


One time rotation of wheel number one have distance range 2 π R1 or same as the circumference of circle formula and one time rotation of wheel number two will have distance range 2 π R2. Because R1 = 2 x R2 so one time wheel number one rotate at the same time wheel number two will rotate twice, and both of wheel will move with the same distance.

Both of wheel have their own axe, this system is different if both of gear have the same axe like on the engine moving system that always connected with this system and make the speed of engine can faster. Look on the picture below:

Wheel number 2 is connected in the same axe with wheel number 3, wheel number 3 have similar radius with wheel number 1, but after all the…

Optics

The word optics, is come from Greek optikes, originally meant the study of the eye and vision. The term now refer to the study of all phenomena related to light. Geometrical optics is that branch which deals with reflection and refraction and the formation of images by optical instruments. It treats light as propagating in straight lines or rays.

Physical optics is the study and explanation of optical phenomena in term of the wave nature of light. This branch includes such phenomena as interference, deffraction, and polarization, as well as the subdivisions electrooptics, magetooptics, crystal optics and so on. Quantum optics has to do with the particle nature of light manifest in certain phenomena such as the photoelectric effect.

The science of optics has its roots burried in ancient times, in about 300 BC. Euclid wrote to treatise entitled optics and Catoptics in which he gave the correct law of refflection and applied the law to the study of plane and curved mirror. He also mentio…